Related Projects


This research theme deals with the use of diversity -between systems and between the processes by which they are created and validated- to reduce risk. Fault tolerance - protective redundancy - is an essential component of dependability for all kinds of processes and systems. But within the problem of designing or assessing fault tolerance we can see two aspects:

  • redundancy of structure : ensuring that, given a potential error there is someone/something (redundancy) in charge of dealing with it
  • diversity: containing the risk of the protective elements failing together with the ones to be protected.

The use of diversity to make things dependable is age-old and embedded in our notions of common sense: two heads are better than one, don't put all your eggs in one basket. But beyond the common sense appeal, difficult questions have to be answered, concerning the two aspects:

  • assessment: what we want is a low probability of the fault-tolerant design being defeated by common failures of the redundant (protective and protected) components. How can we estimate this in practice?
  • achievement: we can pursue low failure correlation via various common-sense practices meant to
    • isolate the redundant components against common causes of failure
    • diversify them, in the aspects that have effects on their failure behaviour,
    but how can we choose effective and cost-effective combinations of such means?

The second question implies asking the first question with respect to predicting - with some inevitable uncertainty - the dependability of the various alternative systems one could choose to build, rather than for a specific existing system. For instance, these issues arise when addressing possible trade-offs between pursuing high dependability of the individual components, and high diversity and thus effectiveness of fault tolerance.

In computing, diversity has historically been studied as a topic in its own right with regard to "multiple version software" [1, 2]. But the principle and the important questions are relevant for all kinds of applications: for error detection, containment, recovery processes, whether in a running system or in the process producing it, and irrespective of whether the fault tolerance functions are performed by people or machines.

DIRC has set itself the goal of widening the scope of rigorous knowledge about diversity to a broader range of applications, and to enrich it by improving the integration of knowledge from engineering disciplines and from psychology and sociology.


DIRC's work on diversity is probably the most concentrated research effort anywhere in the world on this important subject. It has taken advantage of links to previous and ongoing work, and encompassed both probabilistic modelling and experimental work. The advances produced extend the scope of knowledge on diversity to cover wider ranges of both system types and ways that diversity is pursued or threatened. Examples include:

  • a case study on the effect of a decision aid computer system for medical use. The diversity viewpoint provides important new insight about limits to the effectiveness of the tool in reducing errors (or whether it might even cause some errors), and for directions for improving and correctly assessing this benefit;
  • probabilistic modelling of how factors that may violate the separation between development efforts of diverse designs affect the benefit produced by diversity. These models give a unified view of many issues affecting project management decisions in this area; and they provide a useful modelling template, and some very general insight, about factors that affect diversity of failures in any system with diverse redundancy;
  • modelling the effects of setting complementary, diverse goals to the members of a development team, to identify under which conditions this will lead to reducing flaws in the product (this has been the subject of PhD research at Newcastle: a link to the thesis will be included here when this has been accepted);
  • applying diversity in the arguments that support dependability claims, and studying how much this diversity will improve confidence in the claims. This ongoing work aims to bring clarity to the vague, although intuitively plausible, demands for such "argument diversity" in current practice and even written guidelines;
  • modelling the effects of increasing diversity of usage in the testing process of a system on the reliability growth observed by different users of the system, a question originated by some claims about the merits of open source project management methods;
  • addressing the issue of the extent to which diversity can bring benefits in security, a controversial topic in the security community. A DIRC position paper discusses a more rigorous, probabilistic treatment of the issue, taking advantage of the results developed in the reliability area;
  • exploring the extent of diversity "naturally" present in off-the-shelf products that nominally implement a common standard: SQL database servers. This work has highlighted both the potential and a probable need for adding diversity to the current solution for fault tolerance in databases;
  • exploring the degree and type of spontaneously arising diversity among programs produced to the same specification, for several sets of programs submitted to a programming context.


[1] B. Littlewood, P. Popov, L. Strigini, "Modelling software design diversity - a review", ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 33, no. 2, 2001, pp.177-208.

[2] L. Strigini. "Fault Tolerance Against Design Faults", in Dependable Computing Systems: Paradigms, Performance Issues, and Applications (Hassan Diab and Albert Zomaya, Eds.), J. Wiley & Sons, 2005.

Other selected papers from this theme

(more at the links for the individual outcomes above).
  • E. Alberdi, A.A. Povyakalo, L. Strigini, P. Ayton, M. Hartswood, R. Procter, R. Slack, "Use of computer-aided detection (CAD) tools in screening mammography: a multidisciplinary investigation", British Journal of Radiology, vol. 78, 2005, pp.S31-S40. Abstract
    Other papers on the DIRC mammography case study (human-machine diversity in medical systems)

  • M.J.P. van der Meulen, L. Strigini, M. Revilla, "On the Effectiveness of Run-Time Checks", Proc SAFECOMP 2005, 28-30 September 2005, Halden, Norway, (Gran, B.A., Winther, R., Eds.), in print. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag. Abstract
  • P. Popov and B. Littlewood, "The effect of testing on the reliability of fault-tolerant software", Proc International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN2004), pp. 265-274, IEEE Computer Society, 2004. Abstract
  • I. Gashi, P. Popov, V. Stankovic and L. Strigini, "On Designing Dependable Services with Diverse Off-The-Shelf SQL Servers", in Architecting Dependable Systems, (R. de Lemos, C. Gacek and A. Romanovsky, Eds.), pp. 196-220, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag , 2004. Abstract
  • B. Littlewood and L. Strigini, "Redundancy and diversity in security", ESORICS 2004, 9th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Sophia Antipolis, France, Springer-Verlag LNCS 3193, 2004, pp. 423-438. Abstract
  • L. Strigini, A. Povyakalo and E. Alberdi. "Human-machine diversity in the use of computerised advisory systems: a case study", Proc. DSN 2003, International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, San Francisco, U.S.A., 2003, pp. 249-258. Abstract
  • R. Bloomfield and B. Littlewood, "Multi-legged arguments: the impact of diversity upon confidence in dependability arguments", Proc. DSN 2003, International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, San Francisco, U.S.A., IEEE Computer Society, 2003, pp. 25-34. Abstract
  • P. Popov, "Reliability Assessment of Legacy Safety-Critical Systems Upgraded with Off-the-Shelf Components", SAFECOMP'2002, September 2002, Catania, Italy, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag. Abstract.
  • D. Bosio, B. Littlewood, M.J. Newby and L. Strigini. "Advantages of open source processes for reliability: clarifying the issues", Presented at Workshop on Open Source Software Development, Newcastle upon Tyne, February 2002. Abstract

Other links:
Diversity related research at City University

Author: Lorenzo Strigini

Page Maintainer: Credits      Project Members only Last Modified: 6 July, 2006